Social capital and participation in community gardens: the case of Cascais

Contenido principal del artículo

Sónia Barata
Rosana Albuquerque
João Simão


The literature on the phenomenon of urban gardens has focused essentially on their contribution to the sustainability of cities and the environmental importance of this type of initiatives. The question that we put in this study is to understand the process of participation in urban garden programs of community character and relate that same participation to the promotion of local sustainability. What motivates citizens to participate, how they participate and what the results of this participation are the core issues that we will address. Having as a case study the urban gardens of Cascais, we used semi-structured interviews to the users of the horticultural spaces. Participation in the community gardens program in Cascais is examined through an analysis of the inputs, the actual process itself and the outputs of the participation. We conclude that the strengthening of social relations, the promotion of cohesion and social inclusion facilitate closer relations of neighborhood. Moreover, by favoring the acquisition of skills, they stimulate citizenship and participation in other community projects, thus contributing to empowering the participants, creating a favorable scenario for the generation of social capital.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
Barata, S., Albuquerque, R., & Simão, J. (2019). Social capital and participation in community gardens: the case of Cascais. methaodos.Revista De Ciencias Sociales, 7(2).


Alaimo, K., Reischl, T. y Allen, J. O. (2010): “Community gardening, neighborhood meetings, and social capital”, Journal of Community Psychology, 38 (4): 497-514.

Albuquerque, R. (2013): Associativismo, capital social e mobilidade: contributos para o estudo da participação associativa de descendentes de imigrantes africanos lusófonos em Portugal (Vol. 41). Lisboa: Observatório da Imigração, ACIDI.

Algert, S., Baameur, A., Diekmann, L., Gray, L. y Ortiz, D. (2016): “Vegetable output, cost savings, and nutritional value of low-income families’ home gardens in San Jose, CA”, Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 11 (3): 328-336.

Armstrong, D. (2000): “A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development”, Health & place, 6 (4): 319-327.

Bardin, L. (1977): A análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70.

Bendt, P., Barthel, S. y Colding, J. (2013): “Civic greening and environmental learning in public-access community gardens in Berlin”, Landscape and Urban planning, 109 (1): 18-30.

Brown, K. H. y Jameton, A. L. (2000): “Public health implications of urban agriculture”, Journal of Public Health Policy, 21 (1): 20-39.

Cabral, I., Keim, J., Engelmann, R., Kraemer, R., Siebert, J. y Bonn, A. (2017): “Ecosystem services of allotment and community gardens: A Leipzig, Germany case study”, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 23: 44-53.

Carpiano, R. (2006): “Toward a neighborhood resource-based theory of social capital for health: Can Bourdieu and sociology help?”, Social Science & Medicine, 62 (1): 165-175.

Chan, J., DuBois, B. y Tidball, K. (2015): “Refuges of local resilience: Community gardens in post-Sandy New York City”, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14 (3): 625-635.

Clarke, L. y Jenerette, G. (2015). “Biodiversity and direct ecosystem service regulation in the community gardens of Los Angeles, CA”, Landscape Ecology, 30 (4): 637-653.

Comstock, N., Dickinson, L., Marshall, J., Soobader, M., Turbin, M, Buchenau, y Litt, J. (2010): “Neighborhood attachment and its correlates: Exploring neighborhood conditions, collective efficacy, and gardening”, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30 (4): 435-442.

Corbetta, P. (2003): Social Research: Theory, Methods and Techniques. London: SAGE.

Crossan, J., Cumbers, A., McMaster, R. y Shaw, D. (2016): “Contesting neoliberal urbanism in Glasgow's community gardens: The practice of DIY citizenship”, Antipode, 48 (4): 937-955.

Dean, H. (2001): “Green citizenship”, Social Policy & Administration, 35 (5): 490-505.

Drake, L. y Lawson, L. (2015). “Results of a US and Canada community garden survey: shared challenges in garden management amid diverse geographical and organizational contexts”, Agriculture and Human Values, 32 (2): 241-254.

Draper, C. y Freedman, D. (2010): “Review and analysis of the benefits, purposes, and motivations associated with community gardening in the United States”, Journal of Community Practice, 18 (4): 458-492.

Ferris, J., Norman, C. y Sempik, J. (2001): “People, land and sustainability: Community gardens and the social dimension of sustainable development”, Social Policy & Administration, 35 (5): 559-568.

Firth, C., Maye, D. y Pearson, D. (2011): “Developing “community” in community gardens”, Local Environment, 16 (6): 555-568.

Flick, U. (2006): An Introduction to Qualitative Research. London: SAGE.

Forrest, R. y Kearns, A. (2001): “Social cohesion, social capital and the neighbourhood”, Urban studies, 38 (12): 2125-2143.

Ghose, R. y Pettygrove, M. (2014): “Urban community gardens as spaces of citizenship”, Antipode, 46 (4): 1092-1112.

Shinew, K., Glover, T. y Parry, D. (2004): “Leisure spaces as potential sites for interracial interaction: Community gardens in urban áreas”, Journal of Leisure Research, 36 (3): 336-355.

Glover, T., Shinew, K. y Parry, D. (2005a): “Association, sociability, and civic culture: The democratic effect of community gardening”, Leisure Sciences, 27 (1): 75-92.

— (2005b): “Building relationships, accessing resources: Mobilizing social capital in community garden contexts”, Journal of Leisure Research, 37 (4): 450-474.

Grootaert, C. y Van Bastelaert, T. (2002): Understanding and measuring social capital. Washington: World Bank.

Guerra, I. (2006): Pesquisa Qualitativa e Análise de Conteúdo –Sentidos e formas de uso. Cascais: Princípia.

Guitart, D., Pickering, C. y Byrne, J. (2014): “Color me healthy: Food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities”, Health & Place, 26: 110-117.

Hale, J., Knapp, C., Bardwell, L., Buchenau, M., Marshall, J., Sancar, F. y Litt, J. (2011): “Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: Gaining insight through the community gardening experience”, Social Science & Medicine, 72 (11): 1853-1863.

Hancock, T. (2001): “People, partnerships and human progress: building community capital”, Health Promotion International, 16 (3): 275-280.

Holland, L. (2004): “Diversity and connections in community gardens: a contribution to local sustainability”. Local environment, 9 (3): 285-305.

INE (2017): Censos 2011. Disponível na web:

Kingsley, J. y Townsend, M. (2006): “‘Dig in’to social capital: Community gardens as mechanisms for growing urban social connectedness”, Urban Policy and Research, 24 (4): 525-537.

Krasny, M. y Tidball, K. (2009): “Community gardens as contexts for science, stewardship, and civic action learning”, Cities and the Environment, 2 (1): 1-18.

Marktest (2017): Classes sociais por concelho. Disponível na web:

Mason, J. (2006): Qualitative Reasearching. London: SAGE.

Middle, I., Dzidic, P., Buckley, A., Bennett, D., Tye, M. y Jones, R. (2014): “Integrating community gardens into public parks: An innovative approach for providing ecosystem services in urban áreas”, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 13 (4): 638-645.

Okvat, H., y Zautra, A. (2011): “Community gardening: A parsimonious path to individual, community, and environmental resilience”, American Journal of Community Psychology, 47 (3-4): 374-387.

Perkins, D. y Zimmerman, M. (1995): “Empowerment theory, research, and application”, American Journal of Community Psychology, 23 (5): 569-579.

Perkins, D., Brown, B. y Taylor, R. (1996): “The ecology of empowerment: Predicting participation in community organizations”, Journal of Social Issues, 52 (1): 85-110.

Pitt, H. (2014): “Therapeutic experiences of community gardens: Putting flow in its place”, Health & place, 27: 84-91.

Portes, A. (2000): “Capital social: origens e aplicações na sociologia contemporânea”, Sociologia, problemas e práticas, 33: 133-158.

Poulsen, M., Hulland, K., Gulas, C., Pham, H., Dalglish, S., Wilkinson, R. y Winch, P. (2014): “Growing an Urban Oasis: A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Benefits of Community Gardening in Baltimore, Maryland”, Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 36 (2): 69-82.

Pretty, J. y Ward, H. (2001): “Social capital and the environment”, World Development, 29 (2): 209-227.

Putnam, R. (1993): “The prosperous community”, The American Prospect, 4 (13): 35-42.

Saldivar-Tanaka, L. y Krasny, M. (2004): "Culturing community development, neighborhood open space, and civic agriculture: The case of Latino community gardens in New York City", Agriculture and Human Values, 21 (4): 399-412.

Shan, H. y Walter, P. (2015): “Growing everyday multiculturalism: Practice-based learning of Chinese immigrants through community gardens in Canada”, Adult Education Quarterly, 65 (1): 19-34.

Smit, J., Nasr, J. y Ratta, A. (2001): “Cities that feed themselves”, en Smith, J., Nasr, J. & A. Ratta, A. eds: Urban agriculture: food, jobs and sustainable cities: 1-29. New York: The Urban Agriculture Network.

Stocker, L. y Barnett, K. (1998): “The significance and praxis of community‐based sustainability projects: community gardens in western Australia”, Local Environment, 3 (2): 179-189.

Turner, B. (2011): “Embodied connections: sustainability, food systems and community gardens”, Local Environment, 16 (6): 509-522.

Twiss, J., Dickinson, J., Duma, S., Kleinman, T., Paulsen, H. y Rilveria, L. (2003): “Community gardens: lessons learned from California healthy cities and communities”, American Journal of Public Health, 93 (9): 1435-1438.

Verba, S., Schlozman, K. y Brady, H. (1995): Voice and equality: civic voluntarism in American politics, Cambridge/London: Harvard University Press.

Walter, P. (2013): “Theorising community gardens as pedagogical sites in the food movement”, Environmental Education Research, 19 (4): 521-539.

Wang, H., Qiu, F. y Swallow, B. (2014): “Can community gardens and farmers' markets relieve food desert problems? A study of Edmonton, Canada”, Applied Geography, 55: 127-137.

WCED - World Commission on Environment and Development (1987): O Nosso Futuro Comum. Lisboa: Meriberica.

Zanko, A., Hill, J., Estabrooks, P., Niewolny, K. y Zoellner, J. (2014): “Evaluating community gardens in a health disparate region: a qualitative case study approach”, Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 9 (2): 137-169.